Solar panels work by allowing photons to knock an electron free from its host atom. The continuous flow of photons correlates to a continuous flow of electricity. Photovoltaic cells are created with two blends of silicon. The top layer (the layer that is facing the sun), is silicon doped with phosphorous thus giving that side extra electrons (P) and the bottom layer is doped with boron which results in a lower number of electrons (N). This results in an unbalance of electrons on both sides. When the photon strikes the P side, it knocks one of the electrons free and it jumps the gap to fill in one of the holes on the N side. If we attach wires to both sides of the solar cell, then current will flow.
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